2018, the sixth warmest year in India on record since 1901

The 2018 annual mean land surface air temperature for the country was +0.41 0C above the 1981-2010 average, thus making it the sixth warmest year on record since 1901.
The five warmest years on record in order were: 2016 (+0.720C), 2009 (+0.560C), 2017 (+0.550C), 2010 (+0.540C), 2015 (+0.420C). It may be mentioned that 11 out of 15 warmest years were during the past 15 years (2004-2018), a press release from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) said.
The past decade (2001-2010/ 2009-2018) was also the warmest decade on record with anomalies of 0.230C /0.370C. The annual mean temperature during 1901-2018 showed an increasing trend of 0.60C/100 years with a significant increasing trend in maximum temperature (1.00C/100 years) and relatively lower increasing trend (0.20C/100 years) in minimum temperature.
The country averaged season mean temperatures were also above the average during all the four seasons with the winter season (January- February, +0.590C) being the 5th warmest since 1901 and the pre-monsoon season (March-May, with anomaly +0.550C above average) being the 7th warmest ever since 1901. 
The country averaged mean monthly temperatures were warmer than the normal during all the months of the year (except December) with mean temperatures exceeding the normal by around 1.0C during the two months (February (0.930C) and March (0.960C)).
The annual rainfall over the country was 85 % of Long Period (1951-2000) Average (LPA). Rainfall as a whole during the SW monsoon season (June-September), which is the principal rainy season was near normal (90.6 % of LPA). 
During this season, among the four large geographical regions of the country, South Peninsular India and Northwest India both received 98% of their respective normal rainfall. Central India received 93% of its LPA rainfall while East & Northeast India received 76% of its LPA rainfall.
The 2018 northeast monsoon season (October-December) rainfall over the country as a whole was substantially below normal (56% of LPA). This was the sixth lowest since 1901. 
The seasonal rainfall during the northeast monsoon season over the core region of the south peninsula (comprising of 5 subdivisions --Coastal Andhra Pradesh, Rayalaseema, Tamil Nadu & Puducherry, South Interior Karnataka and Kerala), was also below average (66% of LPA). 
Out of these five subdivisions, one subdivision Kerala received normal rainfall. The other four subdivisions received deficient rainfall.
During 2018, 7 cyclonic storms formed over the north Indian Ocean. Out of these 7 systems, 3 systems forming over the Arabian Sea (2 during the pre-monsoon season and one during the post-monsoon season), did not have landfall over the Indian region. 
A cyclonic storm formed over the Bay of Bengal in monsoon season (September) crossed north Andhra Pradesh-Odisha coast near Gopalpur on September 20. The remaining three systems, which formed over the Bay of Bengal during the post-monsoon season crossed the Indian coast. 
The first system “Titli” formed over the east-central Bay of Bengal on October 8 and crossed the Odisha coast on October 11. This storm claimed over 70 lives from coastal districts of Odisha. 
The second one “Gaja” which formed over the east-central Bay on November 10, crossed Tamil Nadu coast on November 15 and after moving across the south peninsula, it re-emerged into the Arabian Sea as a deep depression. This storm claimed over 40 lives from coastal districts of Tamil Nadu. 
The last cyclonic storm of the year “Phethai”, which formed over the southeast Bay of Bengal on December 13, crossed the Andhra Pradesh coast on December 17. 
The country also experienced other high impact weather events like extremely heavy rainfall, heat and cold waves, snowfall, thunderstorm, dust storm, lightning, floods etc. 
Uttar Pradesh was the most adversely affected state during the year which reported near 600 deaths due to cold waves, thunderstorm, dust storm, lightning and floods.
Flood and heavy rain-related incidents reportedly claimed over 800 lives from different parts of the country (northern/northeastern, central & peninsular parts) during pre-monsoon, monsoon & post-monsoon seasons. 
Of these deaths, 223 deaths alone were reported from Kerala (August 8-23), 158 from Uttar Pradesh, 139 from Maharashtra and 116 from West Bengal during the monsoon season.
The thunderstorm was another major event of the year over the north-eastern parts of the country which reportedly claimed 166 lives from Uttar Pradesh (April-May) and 75 from Jharkhand (June-July).
 Dust storm claimed over 150 lives from Uttar Pradesh (92 lives, May 2-6) and adjoining parts of Rajasthan (68 Lives, April-May).

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